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|December 4, 2009|
Earlier this year, the ICC issued an arrest warrant for al-Bashir, accusing him of complicity in war crimes and crimes against humanity in his government's campaign against rebels in Darfur.
Gration said the goal of the U.S. policy is to establish democratic processes in Sudan, which held its last election in 1986 and has been wracked by warfare, drought and other problems.
The 2005 peace agreement calls for national elections in April 2010, followed by a referendum in 2011 on independence in southern Sudan. Darfur is not in the southern region seeking independence. According to Gration, progress so far has included registering more than 11 million people for the April election, and negotiating agreement between al-Bashir's government and the southern independence movement on how to make progress on 10 of the 12 points of the peace plan.
Committee members questioned if the U.S. policy is realistic, particularly in dealing with the Bashir government and its history of genocide. They noted Sudan has more than 2 million displaced people, had kicked out international aid organizations when the ICC issued its arrest warrant for al-Bashir, and is reportedly arming allied militias ahead of the scheduled 2010 election.
Several asked Gration about a classified list of possible incentives and penalties for Sudan available to the administration under its new policy. Gration responded he was willing to discuss the options in a classified hearing, but provided no details.
"I strongly oppose any approach that provides incentives, concessions to a perpetrator of genocide," said Sen. Sam Brownback, R-Kansas, who was allowed to participate in the House subcommittee hearing in the initial absence of the ranking Republican member. "We cannot trade justice for peace. The ends do not justify the means." Brownback persistently questioned Gration on his contacts with the Bashir government, eventually forcing Gration to concede his dealings with a government perpetrating genocide.
Gration initially acknowledged dealing with government officials as part of his efforts to increase implementation of the 2005 peace agreement. Under Brownback's questioning, he said the officials are senior members of the Bashir government, and then agreed that the government is currently carrying out genocide in Darfur.
However, Gration defended the U.S. strategy as a balanced effort to achieve long-term progress.
John Prendergast, a former Clinton administration security official who now heads a group dedicated to ending genocide, told the panel that the U.S. strategy must hold al-Bashir's government accountable to its commitments under the peace plan. In particular, he said the peace plan calls for creating conditions for successful elections, including freedom of assembly, full access to media and international observers, and new security laws to reduce harassment of opposition parties. "None of these preconditions have been met," Prendergast said, adding that a non-credible election would give al-Bashir and his government "false legitimacy." Failure to hold the referendum in 2011 as planned, he warned, would be the "clearest trigger for all-out war."
Prendergast said the international community must enforce an existing arms embargo on Darfur and impose "credible pressure" on Sudan, including targeted sanctions on top government officials, denying international debt relief and bolstering support for ICC investigations.
Committee members asked Gration if China's role as an arms supplier and major investor in Sudan's oil industry is hindering efforts to impose sanctions. Gration said Obama discussed the Sudan issue with Chinese President Hu Jintao on his recent trip to China, but the countries continue to differ on some matters, including arms.
Outcry from Darfur advocates <http://www.politico.com/blogs/bensmith/1209/Outcry_from_Darfur_advocates.html?showall#>
The criticism of President Obama's Sudan envoy, Scott Gration, by Darfur advocates grew louder after hearings in the House today at which Gration conceded <http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/africa/12/03/us.sudan/> that he's negotiating with the Sudanese government:
“The big surprise was there is not a classified annex. And that suggests there is a big hole at the center of the administration’s strategy. They haven’t clearly articulated for themselves, international partners, Khartoum and other actors what the benchmarks are for progress," said Save Darfur Coalition President Jerry Fowler, referring to a promised annex at last month's policy rollout.
"We are extremely disappointed that Gen. Gration did not know any details regarding President Obama's meeting with the Chinese leader. It contributes to a growing level of concern that ending violence and genocide in Sudan is not as high on the administration's list of priorities as we've been led to believe," said Ruth Messinger, the president of the American Jewish World Service, in the same press release.